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In the foregoing and in the following examples, all temperatures are set forth uncorrected in degrees Celsius; and, unless otherwise indicated, all parts and percentages are by weight. An Er:Yb-codoped glass having 1. The glass casting produced was first cut to yield characterization samples with the following property results:. Vd Based on these measured properties, in comparison to the expected results known from prior melts of this glass composition, the proper chemical identity of the prepared glass was assured. It is common practice in the glass industry to have high confidence that the composition is that intended when the index, nd, Abbe number, vd, and density, p, agree with expected values within the tolerance ranges indicated in Table 3.
The measured optical properties and the measured density value combined with the recorded input weights of rare earth species into the glass allowed the calculation of the following additional properties:. Refractive Index at 1. Thirty-eight glass plates were then prepared from the remaining glass from the produced casting. Each plate measured 50mm x 50mm x 2mm in thickness and was polished on the 50mm x.
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The apertures were etched in a nm thick Al mask layer. Standard metal deposition and microlithography techniques were employed to form the waveguide mask. The ion exchanged specimens were blocked with a similar glass using glycothalate wax and were diced using an automatic wafer dicing saw that employed a resonoid blade. The specimens were cut to a dimension of approximately 2.
The waveguides were parallel to the 2. After the rough polish, the final polish was done using a mixture of cerium oxide and water which was dispensed onto soft lapping material on an automatic polishing machine.
After polishing was completed, the samples were deblocked in acetone by the process of ultrasound. Several measurements were performed to determine the properties of the ion exchanged waveguides. The refractive index as a function of position within the sample was analyzed using the method of refractive near-field scanning. The dimensions of transverse modes of the waveguides were measured by coupling light into one end of the waveguide and imaging the light emerging from the other end onto a calibrated infrared camera.
Figure 1 shows a schematic of the laser measurement setup. Placing broadband dielectric mirrors on the polished waveguide end faces formed the laser cavities. The mirrors were held in place by small spring clips with index matching oil between the end facet and the mirror. The pump laser light was launched through one of the mirrors with a 4X microscope objective. The laser output and unabsorbed pump light were collimated with a 16X microscope objective and separated using filters.
Neither the waveguide length nor the cavity output couplings were optimized. For the Yb-doped laser, the glass was doped with 4. The initial ion exchanges took no steps to avoid the interaction of water vapor or oxygen with the ion exchange solvent. Subsequent experiments revealed that this process was not reliable in terms of repeatability and waveguide laser yield.
The specimen was cut to a dimension of approximately 2. A Yb-doped waveguide laser was tested using a setup similar to the one shown in Fig 1.
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Example 3: Crucible ion-exchange Protected from Ambient Environment. Using a sealed Al crucible that was designed by David Funk for the purpose of electric-field assisted ion exchange using liquid nitrate contacts on both sides of the wafer, indications of defect-free glass after ion exchange were observed.
The was corroded around the edges where the polished Al to glass seal leaked, but was defect and corrosion free in the interior where little air was leaked into the chamber.
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Subsequent experiments led to sealing a crucible with a graphite gasket material that was air tight. While the process has not completely eliminated corrosion of the glass in the region of the waveguides, the remaining corrosion is mitigated and uniform and also rinses away in the etching material used to etch the Al mask from the samples. An array of monolithic, single-frequency distributed-Bragg-reflector DBR waveguide lasers has been successfully demonstrated operating near nm wavelengths. An output power of 80 mW was achieved with mW of coupled pump power.
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Each laser exhibits stable operation on a single longitudinal mode and all have linewidths less than kHz. A comb of waveguides with varying effective indices allows the selection of wave length using a single-period grating. Over the past several years, the growth in the demand for telecommunications bandwidth generated by new telecommunications services, cable television CATV , and data communication has drive the rapid development of wavelength division multiplexing WDM where information is simultaneously transmitted on several different wavelengths in the same optical fiber channel.
The development of WDM systems has placed demands on laser sources that are difficult to meet using existing technologies such as semiconductor distributed feedback DFB lasers. Issues of concern for such systems include wavelength selectivity, wavelength stability over laser lifetime, tunability, process yield, power limitations, and costs.
Several demonstrations of the waveguide and fiber laser technology have been discussed in the literature. One primary advantage of solid-state waveguide lasers is that they offer the possibility for arrays of lasers operating on many wavelengths on a single glass chip. Rare-earth-doped waveguide lasers can also provide kilohertz linewidths with high radiance, low noise, and easy coupling to optical fibers.
Single-transverse-mode waveguides at nm wavelength were fabricated in a commercially available phosphate alkali glass that was co-doped with 0. The mechanism behind the etching of the glass during the exchange is currently under investigation, and it is thought that it is caused by residual water in the hygroscopic nitrate melt. The surface quality of the glass in the recessed regions, as observed using a lOOOx Nomarski contrast microscope, appears identical to the original surface of the glass and apparently does not cause significant scattering losses.
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The waveguide end faces were polished perpendicular to the channels. The length of the waveguides prior to the grating fabrication step was 2. Measurements of the waveguide mode-field dimensions showed that a single transverse mode was supported in each of the waveguides.
For the guide formed with the 6. It supported multiple transverse modes at the nm pump wavelength. A DBR surface relief grating was fabricated holographically in a 0. The corner was mounted on a rotation stage so that the angle of the two beams could be varied One surface of the corner was a mirror, and the other surface was a vacuum chuck for holding the sample. Light from a The beam was collimated using a 76 mm diameter lens with a mm focal length.
For a waveguide with estimated effective index of 1.
The exposure time for the photoresist was 18s with 3. The grating was developed in undiluted Shipley CD 8 developer. During the development, the diffraction of light from a When the first-order diffracted power reached a peak, the grating was removed, rinsed, and dried. Mounting the specimen in this way causes Cr to accumulate only on the tops of the grating lines and not in the grooves, thus providing a durable etch mask. The grating was etched in the glass for 20 minutes using a reactive ion etching system with a 6.
The low-pressure plasma created a large self-bias voltage of V when nning at W of coupled power with frequency The electrode spacing was 3.
The mirror was held in place by a spring clip, and index-matching fluid was used between the mirror and the waveguide facet. The DBR grating was used as the laser output coupler. The launching efficiency was estimated to be between 65 and 71 percent. To determine the launching efficiency we measured the Fresnel reflectance of the input mirror, the loss of the launching objective, and the excess coupling loss. The slope efficiency as a function of launched pump power is calculated to by 26 percent when we take the coupling factor to be 71 percent.
We estimated the reflectance of the grating using the simplified laser formula derived from the theory of Rigrod:. R ; is the grating reflectance and R 2 is the reflectance of the attached mirror. We used two mirrors with reflectances of 80 and 90 percent for R 2. For both cases, we calculated the grating reflectances, R ; , to be 65 percent.
To investigate the longitudinal mode structure of the laser we coupled the laser output into an optical fiber scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer with a free spectral range of GHz.